HTML and JavaScript

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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript.

Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document.

JavaScript is a programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. JavaScript is high-level, often just-in-time compiled, and multi-paradigm. It has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions.

Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web. JavaScript enables interactive web pages and is an essential part of web applications. The vast majority of websites use it for client-side page behavior, and all major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it.

Panda Programmer uses HTML and JavaScript not just because they are popular and useful programming languages. We use HTML and JavaScript in our curriculum also because it gives students a specific example of a programming language with very different syntax from Scratch and Python. We reassign our students several projects that they have already programmed in Scratch and Python, so they can do them in HTML and JavaScript. The experience of programming the same project two or three profoundly different ways using different languages is a powerful milestone for our students.